Also known as black elder, European elder, European elderberry, or European black elderberry.
|Germination||soak in hot water (24 hrs.), warm stratify (60 days), cold stratify (150 days), sow 1/4 in. deep, scarification may be required|
|Life Cycle||deciduous shrub|
|Uses||edible* see notes on toxicity (flowers, fruit), medicinal*, utility (dye, fungicide, insecticide, tubing, repellent)|
|Notes||Elderberry flowers are edible and ripe fruit have an excellent flavor, and contain several healthy compounds and nutrients, though even ripe berries should be cooked to destroy toxins. However, unripe berries and all other parts of the plant contain toxic cyanide-inducing glycosides.|
|Breed Status||open pollinated|
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