|Germination||soak in hot water (24 hrs.), warm stratify (60 days), cold stratify (150 days), sow 1/4 in. deep, scarification may be required|
|Life Cycle||deciduous shrub|
|Uses||edible* see notes on toxicity (flowers, fruit), medicinal*, utility (dye, fungicide, insecticide, tubing, repellent)|
|Notes||Elderberry flowers are edible and ripe fruit have an excellent flavor, and contain several healthy compounds and nutrients, though even ripe berries should be cooked to destroy toxins. However, unripe berries and all other parts of the plant contain toxic cyanide-inducing glycosides.|
|Breed Status||open pollinated|
**Purchasers are responsible for understanding and complying with all local laws, restrictions, and regulations. For more information and a list of restricted plants and seeds, please visit the USDA's composite list of Federal and State noxious weeds. The extent Amkha Seed LLC can be held liable for damages is limited to replacement of the item, or a refund of the purchase price (within 30 days of purchase). Click here for more information.